City Suburbs: Placing suburbia in a post-suburban world

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  2. City suburbs : placing suburbia in a post-suburban world
  3. Governing Post Suburban Growth
  4. Numéros ouverts
  5. City suburbs : placing suburbia in a post-suburban world (Book, ) []

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City suburbs : placing suburbia in a post-suburban world

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Governing Post Suburban Growth

Readjustment to peacetime in was welcomed by a generation that had lived through economic disaster and global conflict. It was also approached with some trepidation. The immediate postwar era a generation earlier had brought unemployment, a pandemic, and labour unrest. Some of these concerns were addressed at the political level see Section 8. No initiative was as comprehensive in this respect as the Veterans Charter.

This included a one-time pay-out, cash for civilian clothing, and life insurance. Funding was available for post-secondary education at university or in vocational schools. The Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation CMHC was created in to assist Canadians with their first home purchase and the renovation of older homes neglected during the Depression and not helped by material shortages during the war.

Numéros ouverts

Legislative and social pressures combined to enable returned soldiers to reclaim their old jobs if, indeed, they had been formerly employed. This meant, inevitably, removing women from the industrial workforce. For returning servicewomen, however, no similar commitment was made. The end effect was to make marriage and housewifery the default career path for women who were not nurses, secretaries, or teachers.

Would suburbanization have occurred with such rapidity in the postwar years had it not been for this context? It is unlikely. CMHC brought homeownership within reach of a generation that had, less than a decade earlier, experienced record-setting levels of unemployment, cash shortages, and falling wages. The economic boost provided by the war had one other related impact that drove forward suburban growth. As economic conditions began to improve slightly in the late s, so too did the nuptiality marriage rate and the number of births. The earliest hint of a fertility recovery, however, was nothing compared to what would come after World War II.

In , there were 4. In the post-war, Cold War years, being married, building a family, and — yes, being born — was the experience of a growing number of Canadians. The declaration of war in was followed by a veritable stampede to the wedding altar.

In Vancouver, for example, there was a To give this more perspective, it represents a doubling over the incidence of nuptiality in the city. Births would follow soon thereafter. Nationally the number of births in was only , and then it shot up to pre-Depression rates in , surpassing every year in the s other than , at , The crude birth rate rose from It then sagged a bit and then recovered in to , when it hovered just above 28 per There were twice as many live births in , than there had been in any year in the s.

What is more, although the share of births that were illegitimate climbed during the war years from 3. More and more births took place in hospitals. Likewise, stillbirths fell from nearly 32 per live births in to fewer than 12 in The enormity of immigration in 20th-century Canada considered in Section 5. As with the arrival of newcomers, the movement of Canadians from one province to another has had a westward bias.

The other provinces and the Territories are more fully represented in British Columbia and Alberta than in any of the Maritime provinces, and this has been the case since the early 20th century. It is difficult to track interprovincial movement but we can identify out-migration patterns. From to , there was only one decade in which Nova Scotia saw fewer people leave than arrived; in the same period PEI and New Brunswick and, after , Newfoundland experienced substantial and sustained net out-migration.

The West was not exempt from abandonment: Manitoba was a net loser of population from and Saskatchewan from Alberta experienced net migration from to the s. In fact, only British Columbia and Ontario registered net increases in migration across every decade of the 20th century. The ability to move to suburbia seemed, at the time, a very democratic one. But, in fact, it was one enjoyed mostly by Canadians who held steady jobs, and most of those people were drawn from the British and French context populations. West Indian, South Asian, and other visible minorities took over spaces vacated by those who made their way to the suburbs.

The effect on city centres of this evacuation is important to note. Downtowns in the first half of the 20th century had been a focal point for entertainment and commerce; by the s, many were gutted.

City suburbs : placing suburbia in a post-suburban world (Book, ) []

Live theatre and music venues closed down, old movie palaces became dilapidated and doomed for demolition, neighbourhoods that were increasingly viewed as irredeemable slums were ploughed under to make way for freeways that would conduct suburbanites to and from work. Downtown department stores retained some customer loyalty, but the spread of suburban shopping malls were a blow from which they would never fully recover.

The impact of this abandonment of the city centres can still be seen in many Canadian metropolises. Some, like Winnipeg, are a patchwork of vacant lots and are very unpopulated after dark. The skylines of the largest downtowns across the country followed suit and began to reflect a pattern of trademark styles.

The black glass Toronto-Dominion towers were instantly distinguishable from the white-edged Bank of Montreal skyscrapers.

see This new organism accomplished much but some of its projects were highly controversial. As the flight to the suburbs accelerated in the s and pressures grew to develop more and better highway systems, a generation of planners appeared whose approach to depressed areas was to bring in the bulldozers.

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Some took their lead from American cities where variegated downtowns were gutted to make way for sleek, high-density social housing projects and cloverleaf overpasses. Largely because the Canadian economy and population lagged somewhat behind the Americans, some cities were spared the worst excesses of this period.

Even in the United States, however, the wisdom of obliterating whole communities in the name of faster traffic flow and rationalized modern housing was being questioned. The battle to stop the project was ultimately successful.

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If we are building a transportation system to serve the automobile, the Spadina Expressway would be a good place to start. But if we are building a transportation system to serve people, the Spadina Expressway is a good place to stop.